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Background

Swift 4.0 has introduced a really helpful API. If you have been following the Swift project and the new features in this version on the language you have probably already heard about it. I ran into some issues when working with some of our REST APIs so wanted to document them here in case other people run into the same situations.

Getting Started

If you are familar with you can skip this sections, if not this is how Apple summarise is on there docs page :

There is already quite a lot of good articles out there on how to use this new API. These are the best ones, I would suggest reading them as an entry point:

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Swift 4 Decodable: Beyond The Basics 📦

Decoding Heterogeneous Arrays

A heterogeneous array is when you have a piece of JSON which contains multiple different objects. In my case, these objects are subclasses of a base class Each subclass has different attributes which need to be serialised.

Models

Firstly, the models need to be defined, conforming to protocol. Starting with the base class and then the subclass.

This is the base class and defines all the attributes associated with it. There is nothing complicated about this, so no custom code needs to be written, it just uses the standard API.

has the additional attribute of so we need to add that. This class needs to be initialised before the base class. We need to write our own custom init method. You can see on line 11, we pass the same decoder object to the super class so that it can decode the base classes attributes.

Serialisation

This is how we convert the json into memory. Nothing complicated here, but we now need to define the object. This object contains a heterogenous array so we will need to implement the protocol ourselves.

Heterogenous Array

Line 2 shows that we add an array of objects as a property to this class.

Next we create an enum which is used to decode the dictionary containing the array of drinks.

We also define an enum which is used to serialise the type field for each object in the array.

And a final enum with specifies all the possible drink types.

With all the enums specified we can get to the serialisation.

Line 19: Get the drinks dictionary — 

Line 20: Get the array of drinks — 

Line 23: Make a copy of the drinks array —  This is needed as we be iterating the In doing so we will have no way to get the decoder object for each element in the array.

Line 24: Iterate the container

Line 25: Get the current drink container

Line 26: Decode the type attribute

We can now use this decoded attribute to identify which class to decode. We have to use the copied object for decoding however, as the iterator of has moved onto the next object. Viola!

Summary

This last step was the only way I could get the API to do my bidding. As far as I can see there is no way to get a decoder from an or This seems like a limitation of the API, but Im sure there are good reasons for it not to be possible. It does seem a little strange to expose that dependency just for this use case of decoding.

If you think otherwise, let me know, it may be worth thinking about it a little further and adding a suggestion for improvement to the Swift API itself. After all this is only the first iteration of the this API, its possible developers may have missed this use case.

Full Playground

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From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource
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University of Oklahoma Study Abroad Microbiology in Arezzo, Italy

Contents

| Domain = Bacteria | Phylum = Saint Laurent classic shirt Sale Authentic Cheap Big Discount From China Low Shipping Fee 9BFg0OuvBd
| Order = Actinomycetales | Family = Corynebacteriaceae | Genus = Corynebacterium | Species = C. diphtheria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a gram-positive, non-motile, aerobic, and rod-shaped bacterium that causes diphtheria. There are four main subspecies that have been recognized: C. diphtheriae mitis , C. diphtheriae intermedius , C. diphtheriae gravis , and C. diphtheriae belfanti . C. diphtheriae gravis has the fastest generation time, allowing it to impose its toxic effects sooner. They can all be characterized as toxigenic or non-toxigenic, or those causing diphtheria and those that don’t, respectively. Diphtheria is an upper respiratory tract infection initially resulting in a sore throat and mild fever, but can progress to other more serious symptoms if not treated [1] . It can also infect the skin when lesions are exposed to the bacteria. Even though there are thousands of reported cases each year, the threat of contracting or succumbing to this illness has dramatically decreased due to advancements in antibiotic treatment and the development of vaccinations [2] .

C. diphtheriae has two main virulence factors that contribute to its survival in the host. They help the process of adherence in the host and the colonization of the respiratory tract to cause infection.

The pili found on the surface of C. diphtheriae are beneficial in the adherence to host cells. There are three distinct types of pili expressed including SpaA-, SpaD-, and SpaH- (Spa for sortase-mediated pilus assembly). They are all structurally similar, but have different functions. SpaA- specifically allows for the adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells, while SpaD- and SpaH- display specificity for binding to lung and laryngeal epithelial cells. There are also two minor pili, SpaB and SpaC proteins, that only bind to pharyngeal cells. The presence of these various pili on C. diphtheriae help it to adhere to certain surfaces, which is necessary for colonization of the host [3] .

The main virulence factor of C. diphtheriae is diphtheria toxin (DT), an exotoxin, released by the bacteria after entering the human body. DT is classified as an AB toxin because it has two components, one for activation and one for binding. Unlike many other toxins, DT is encoded by a bacteriophage, and it also secreted when extracellular iron levels become low. The major function of the toxin is to enter the cytoplasm and inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible host cells [4] . After the termination of protein synthesis, the production of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid is decreased, and energy metabolism is secondarily affected. All of these factors ultimately lead to cell death [5] . The toxin is carried throughout the body via the bloodstream to reach distant organs, which can occasionally cause paralysis or congestive heart failure [6] .

CSRMF is an official cooperating association with California State Parks and a 501(c)(3) organization providing funding and support for numerous programs including the Railtown 1897 State Historic Park in Jamestown, CA.

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